Xu hướng thiết kế kiến trúc trong tương lai

Kiến trúc là điểm giao thoa của sự phát triển về ứng dụng công nghệ, xu hướng xã hội và khoa học kỹ thuật. Dưới đây là những xu hướngchính có thể thay đổi bộ mặt của môi trường xây dựng trong những năm sắp tới.

1. Robot tham gia vào hoạt động xây dựng
Trong những năm gần đây, ở các nước phát triển trên thế giới, số lượng các robots xây dựng ngày càng gia tăng, từ sản xuất 3D toàn bộ các chế phẩm xây dựng bằng bê tông đến thiết bị không người lái bay trên không lắp ráp từng vật liệu vào với nhau mà không cần sự tác động trực tiếp của con người.



2. Thiết kế linh hoạt sẽ giúp kéo dài tuổi thọ của cơ sở hạ tầng
Những người khởi xướng của mô hình kinh tế tuần hoàn (circular economy) đưa ra tranh cãi rằng việc giảm thiểu sử dụng nguồn tài nguyên hữu hạn là cần thiết. Điều đó có nghĩa là thiết kế cơ sở hạ tầng có thể kéo dài hàng trăm năm, vì yêu cầu sử dụng của con người thay đổi theo thời gian.
Các kiến ​​trúc sư đang ngày càng bị thách thức trong việc xây dựng các dự án cơ sở hạ tầng tính linh hoạt và thích nghi cao để đáp ứng nhu cầu thay đổi.
Giáo sư Rechard de Neufville của MIT đã dành chiến thắng với đề án "flexibility in engineering design" (tạm dịch là tính linh hoạt trong thiết kế kỹ thuật"). Ông khuyên các kỹ sư xây dựng và kiến trúc sư thiết kế hệ thống đặt trong những dự đoán về tính khả dụng có khả năng thay đổi trong suốt vòng đời tồn tại của công trình, và xây dựng một cách linh hoạt dựa trên ý tưởng thiết kế. Nội dung này đã được áp dụng vào rất nhiều các dự án khác nhau trong đó có dự án cải tạo sân bay Sydney

3. Vật liệu xây dựng mới sẽ đáp ứng cho các công trình lớn và bảo vệ môi trường
Các vật liệu mới sẽ sử dụng cho các công trình lớn hơn và đáp ứng tính bền vững hơn nhiều lần so với trước đây. Ví dụ tập đoàn thép Tata Steel của Ấn Độ đang phát triển một phiên bản lớp phủ kim loại trong lớp mỏng graphene để tăng cường độ chịu lực của nó lên 100% cho phép xây dựng các tòa nhà cao hơn rất nhiều so với các tòa nhà chọc trời cao nhất hiện nay. Blue Planet, một công ty của Mỹ đã chứng minh có thể đồng bộ hóa quy trình ép carbon chuyển hóa thành các nguyên tử calcium với sự tham gia của san hô. Ứng dụng cho sản phẩm xi măng, phương há này giúp giảm đáng kể lượng khi CO2 thoát ra thậm chí còn tạo thành Carbon có lợi.
Mức độ khả thi sử dụng các vật liệu mới này trong xây dựng được tài trợ áp dụng trong phần "multi-physics" tại các phần mềm mô phỏng trên máy tính, cho phép các kỹ sư có thể hình dung cách áp dụng vật liệu mới vào thực tế giúp phát huy các lợi thế đảm bảo tính bền vững của dự án.

4. Môi trường xây dựng sẽ ngày càng thông minh và tự động hóa

Các khu đô thị đã và đang khai thác các nguồn dữ liệu lớn để cải thiện các dịch vụ vận tải công cộng và thực hiện các biện pháp về chất lượng môi trường. Với việc sư dụng các phương tiện và thiết bị thu thập tiên tiến và thông minh hiện tại để hệ thống hóa các nguồn dữ liệu trên, môi trường xây dựng sẽ ngày càng trở nên tự động hóa.Năm 2014, một công ty start-up ở thụy điển - Alpiq đã tự nghiên cứu và cho ra mắt Gridsense, một thuật toán cho phép điều khiển tự động các thiết bị bao gồm boiler, heat pump và ga sạc điện ô tô nhằm tối ưu hóa năng lượng sử dụng trong 1 tòa nhà. Với quy mô một thành phố, cảm biến được nhúng trong các đường phố và tòa nhà ở Songdo, thành phố phía nam Hàn Quốc, điều khiển nhiệt độ năng lượng sử dung và lưu lượng giao thông, hình thành mạng lưới thông tin rộng khắp thành phố, giúp hỗ trợ các dịch vụ tự động trong thành phố như hệ thống xử lý chất thải ngầm mà không cần thùng rác và xe tải


5. Các phương tiện giao thông không người lái định hình lại kiến trúc thành phố
Sự phát triển của các ô tô không người lái có thể tới sớm hơn chúng ta nghĩ. theo hãng phân tích IHS Markit, thị trường kinh doanh hãng xe ô tô không người lái sẽ bắt đầu vào năm 2020, tăng gấp 21 lần doanh số toàn cầu vào năm 2035 và sẽ chuyển giao thị trường trước năm 2050.
Xe hơi không người lái mang đến kỳ vọng giảm số lượng người sở hữu xe hơi vì các xe không người lái sẽ luôn sẵn sàng để sử dụng và được lên chương trình tối ưu hóa tuyến đường để có thể ghép hành trình di chuyển của các hành khách khác nhau. Tổ chức Hợp tác và Phát triển Kinh tế OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) đã thực hiện một nghiên cứu thí điểm tại Lisbon, thành phố có hệ thống tàu điện ngầm tót. Nghiên cứu cho thấy việc sử dụng và chia sẻ xe hơi tự động hóa giúp làm giảm trên 90% số lượng xe hơi hiện tại trong thành phố, từ đó sẽ thay đổi nhanh chóng sự phân bổ không gian sử dụng trên đường: như ở Lisbon, theo nghiên cứu của OECD diện tích trống để làm khu vực đỗ xe sẽ tăng lên 1.5 lần hiện tại.






BIM with some major nations in the world

Except England, some development countries in the world have realized benefit of BIM and how necessary to adopt digital method to construction industry, that have increased productivity and efficient.
Below we can talk to BIM around the world through some major countries.

1. USA “Deep into adoption curve”
Advantage come firstly from the federal US system, according to vice-president of Autodesk, Phil Bernstein, there is no central government mechanism, but some of the earliest ideas emerged from the GSA – a federal government body that had a lot of interesting ideas about technical standards.
The GSA provides coordination to federal government, including on the procurement and management of government offices. Bernstein explains. “But since the credit crunch the GSA has been largely de-funded, so it’s not building anything. So you get private sector initiatives, such as the American Institute of Architecture’s protocols, and standards from the construction associations. And you get states such as Maryland or Wisconsin, generating their own standards.


He adds that universities have also been active in publishing standards for clients, for instance the Penn State BIM standard has been widely adopted beyond the campus.
About 70% construction facilities in USA have adopted BIM although there’s been a lot of entrepreneurial activity and discontinuous efforts to write standards. But we are deep into the adoption curve here. There’s no argument about whether it’s worth it. BIM is already working in US

2. BIM in China “Forced not alight”

China, with the boomming of skycrape and various huge projects, is one of the priority countries in Asia . China has made BIM part of its most recent five-year economic plan. But Autodesk vice-president Phil Bernstein points out that adopting BIM is not necessarily as simple as decreeing it.
“There are some structural differences to the Chinese market: it’s controlled top-down and there’s a lot of entrepreneurial activity. The two forces are not aligned.”
Nor is there alignment in BIM standards. Two approaches compete: a national standard being developed by a forum of academics and one already published by the Ministry of Housing and Rural Development.
According to Mr Stuart Green from Reading University
And while the argument for BIM adoption around the world is the promise of greater productivity, efficiency and profitability, that is less of a motivator in China, he says.
“Right now, the use of technology on design and construction in China is quite early on the adoption curve but, as the construction economy continues to mature, it will face the same issues as other markets: commodity prices, managing risk, and informational transparency,” says Bernstein. “It will be interesting to see whether these things push the standards.”
There is another, more immediate, disincentive to invest: “Well over half the software used is pirated, so why bother with BIM?” asks Bernstein.
Meanwhile, Growth Through BIM author Richard Saxon adds that Hong Kong’s BIM-adoption agenda is being led by the Housing Authority.
And Reading University professor Stuart Green FCIOB believes Taiwan is actually a BIM market to watch, as it is “forging ahead in many areas, including integrating the Internet of Things and augmented reality in construction”.

3. BIM in Brazil: Moving very fast
Brazil has a reputation as an academic BIM centre – its universities are third behind the US and Sweden on publishing BIM-focused academic papers. In terms of practical applications, Brazil’s National Department of Transport Infrastructure is embracing BIM in the hope of making 30% cost savings. Schemes that could benefit include the 937km BR 040 highway linking Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro.
“Brazil is starting to get a grip on BIM,” says Teesside University professor Nashwan Dawood. “One of my colleagues [Mohamad Kassem] did a report on different BIM standards and protocols and the government is taking it forward to enable the adoption from a policy and strategic level. Brazil doesn’t have the same massive growth as in Qatar, but BIM is moving very fast.”
At the time of his appointment Kassem said: “Brazil is a massive economy and the country is undergoing a huge amount of construction work. Changes that result in efficiency savings, even small ones, have the potential to save the Brazilian economy billions of pounds... BIM can bring real benefits to the construction industry and there is a real momentum towards innovation in the industry and I hope my work can help improve BIM diffusion in Brazil.”
Elsewhere in Latin America, Panama’s ongoing project to add a new set of locks at either end of the Panama Canal has adopted BIM from start, and a new airport for Mexico City will also use it.

4. BIM in Singapore: “Hyper-modernisation
Singapore has the benefit of being a small market – like the Nordics – so it is easier to start adopting new methodologies, says Arto Kiviniemi, professor of digital architectural design at the University of Liverpool.
“In the UK and US, you have to think about formal contracts more. In Singapore, it’s easy to push the whole industry to doing something.” A 2013 survey found 76% of firms using BIM, and this is predicted to rise to 96% by this year.
Autodesk vice-president Phil Bernstein describes “a pretty sophisticated approach, they are convinced that hyper-modernisation of the construction sector is critical to their economy. They’ve put hundreds of millions of dollars into BIM initiatives – including training funds and free software – and are the most advanced construction industry in Asia.”
Singapore’s BIM fund, part of the Construction Productivity and Capability Fund, began in June 2010 and covers costs of training, consultancy, software and hardware.
The BIM agenda is led by the Building and Construction Authority, but with the close involvement of government ministers because of the clear line to national economic policy. It introduced a BIM roadmap in 2010 and has now published the second version, which apparently shares features with level 3 BIM.
Singapore is also a world leader in the digitisation and automation of the issuing of building permits.
“The system is up and running. It’s called Corenet and its development started in the 1990s,” explains Kiviniemi. The process streamlines the process for regulatory building code permissions, while a new e-submission process for architectural designs for all projects over 5,000 sq m has now been added.
But the latest trend in Singapore is a concerted switch to promoting Design for Manufacture and Assembly techniques – a politically-driven decision.
 “The Singaporean government is saying we no longer want to be dependent on labour from overseas, so it’s now mandating the number of people you can have on site. So either the project takes longer, or you come up with  DfMA ideas, so it’s hopefully fertile ground for us,” says Bryden Wood director Jaimie Johnston.

5. BIM in Quatar: a mismatch underground
Nashwan Dawood, professor at Teesside University, is advising the Qatar government on its BIM strategy. His challenge is to a find a modus vivendi with existing practices and ideas.
“There’s a mismatch on the ground between the German, British and US standards adopted by different construction companies, so the idea is to come up with a system that reflects the way the construction is run and the building is managed,” says Dawood.
“For instance, the American Institute of Architects’ Levels of Definition system is heavily used by consulting engineers and US-based project managers – that’s what their training is. So we’re working towards a BIM protocol that will reflect the US approach with some adoption of the UK work.”
Qatar Rail has already appointed Germany’s Hochtief ViCon, a BIM services supplier, as its adviser, while the Qatar 2022 World Cup committee has developed guidelines on testing companies compliance with their information flows.
Dawood says these example show that “big [client] entities might go their own way” on BIM in the future. He also says software providers such as Bentley and Autodesk are active in the market, linking directly to major clients and offering them modified products to suit their workflows.

6. BIM in Scandinavia “People seem to agree with the new way”
Scandinavia area we talked in this article includes 3 major nations: Norway. Finland, Sweden
Public sector BIM standards or requirements are already in place for Norway, Denmark, Finland and Sweden, although often at a sub-national level, and led by “intelligent” public sector clients such as Norway’s regional health authorities and its Statsbygg government property agency, Finland’s Senate Properties, a state-owned enterprise, and Stockholm County Council.
Their BIM expectations are often more demanding in terms of interoperability than the UK’s Level 2 BIM approach, putting pressure on local providers such as Eleco, Solibri or Tekla.
“Their markets are quite small, so have been fairly able to demand open source data,” comments Reading University professor Jennifer Whyte.
The Nordics are also making progress on Singapore-style systems to automate building approvals and planning permission, although no working systems are in place.

7. BIM in France: “It’s a massive business”
France and Germany have recently taken a step forward on BIM. Government has established the “Le Plan Transition Numérique dans le Bâtiment” task group to flesh out the details of a BIM mandate from the Ministry of Dwellings (Ministère du Logement), and has been given a budget of €20m [corrected online] over three years. France federal has realize BIM benefit for national construction but BIM in France is mandated by Ministry covers housing and general construction. Therefore it’s not so clear whether it will deal with civil engineering and infrastructure.
The new group will take forward an outline BIM plan announced last year, which includes the ambition of developing 500,000 houses using BIM by 2017. And also in 2014, France kicked off a research project on BIM for the infrastructure sector, MINnD, to develop and explore open BIM standards for infrastructure projects. It is being funded by contractors and suppliers including Bouygues and Lafarge.
Ciribini points out that the relative size of construction companies in France gives them more control on BIM standard-setting than their counterparts in the UK: “With a €16bn turnover, Vinci can influence the way things are going and the way the government does things. It’s a massive business.”

8. BIM in Spanish "Government start concern on BIM"
Catalonia -as a region- is already working on developing the Declaration for a BIM Mandate approved by 5 different public administrations (local, municipal, regional, cartography, Housing Agency) at the end of the European BIM Summit held in Barcelona in mid February. The inactivity from Spanish Central Government obliged people and institutions concerned with the future of building sector to create a new pathway.
2 years ago, a BIM Task Force panel was established in Barcelona. The spanish goverment, with domestic private enterprises, created, in July 2015 BIM National Commission to promote, unify, define the BIM implementation throughout the national territory.
They are developing documents, standards, training plans, etc besides strategy planning, phases and dates of implementation.

Source: http://www.constructionmanagermagazine.com


How can a civil engineer become BIM engineer?

BIM is becoming necessary trend for construction facilities because of its comprehensive benefits. Not only architects but civil engineers also want to learn and become a BIM professional. You are able to face some difficulty while being habitual to and matching the very high requirements for modeling and documentation. To BIM practice into projects you have to clarify 2 categories:
1. Modeling 
With this part, you have to be strong at 2 important skills:
- IT Skills and expert in BIM software
BIM is process of information creation, management and exchange base on Cloud computing. Therefore you need understand how database are create in order to control it. About BIM software, you have to be expert in AutoCAD and can start by learning the fundamentals of the most widely used BIM software “Revit”
- 3D thinking and vision
3D working environment is one of things make different to traditional working in construction. This is so difficult to change but have 3D thinking and vision is compulsory condition to become BIM engineer
2. Documentation and construction process
Best way to learn documentation is to look how construction documents are drafted. How details are drafted. You can refer to basic Building construction books for that. I am stressing more on Documentation part as for people from non-Architecture background lack the basic know how for creating drawings. What I observe daily is, modeling is easy to learn for civil folks but, visualizing how the details will be, the basic principles of drawing a Plan, Elevation & Section etc. are the skills which even highly experienced civil engineers with very good software knowledge don't possess.

Construction process knowledge is quite interesting as it requires a lot of onsite experience but the main questions are; do you understand how roads, highways, drainage retaining structures are built? Do you understand the construction phases? Do you understand very well the construction materials and processes?
If you’ve answered yes at most questions above, then you’ll become a BIM expert in less than 6 years provided there are a lot of experience opportunities for you but I don’t recommend you to take this path. Why?
I had neither life nor girlfriend in my last 5 years as becoming an expert in BIM engineering requires tones of passion, dedication, long nights, a lot of experience and thousands of hours day and night spent learning a software or a pallet of softwares that might become obsolete by the time you’ll reach 40’s.
Also, BIM is a way of thinking and approaching problem solving that is not compatible at all with later stages in your career, let’s say project management which is the natural next step for any experienced civil engineer.
You must be thinking there’s a catch right? Well, because a BIM Engineer works on billable hours, your salary will be nothing special in comparison with the one you’ll have in project management. It’s simply to much sacrifice for not so much reward and you’ll also become a master at execution but not at decision making.
I believe any engineer should seek earning freedom on independent thinking. It is this not money the reason why most older engineers decide to open their own consulting businesses.

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